Amortiguadores de masa sintonizada: una revisión general

Palabras clave: Amortiguador Pasivo, Amortiguador Semi Activo, Magnetoreológico, Controlador, Híbrido

Resumen

Las cargas que generan los eventos sísmicos y los fuertes vientos son fuerzas de la naturaleza que someten a las obras civiles a situaciones extremas, lo que provoca eventualmente la falla de las estructuras y en muchas ocasiones, la pérdida de vidas humanas. Para enfrentar estas fuerzas de carácter aleatorio y de difícil predicción, la ingeniería estructural plantea normativas de diseño y construcción de obligatorio cumplimiento en la mayoría de los países del mundo, que permiten que las estructuras puedan resistir de manera adecuada las fuerzas impuestas. Y como la historia lo ha demostrado, algunas veces un buen diseño no es suficiente, por lo que la ingeniería sismoresistente desarrolla nuevas metodologías y dispositivos que ayuden a proteger aún más a las estructuras cuando se ven sometidas a acciones como los sismos y los vientos. Para afrontar estos retos, aparecen mecanismos como los amortiguadores y controladores, agrupados como dispositivos pasivos, activos, semiactivos e híbridos, con diseños innovadores que contribuyen en gran medida a dar mayor seguridad y confianza a nuestras obras civiles. En este artículo se presenta una visión general de los amortiguadores de masa sintonizada, su desarrollo histórico, modelos mecánicos y analíticos, alcances, fortalezas y debilidades.

The loads generated by seismic events and strong winds are forces of nature that subject civil works to extreme situations, generally causing the failure of structures and in many cases, the loss of human lives. In order to face these forces of random character and difficult to predict, structural engineering proposes design and construction regulations that are mandatory in most countries of the world, which allow the structures to adequately resist the imposed forces. And as history has shown, sometimes a good design is not enough, so seismic-resistant engineering develops new methodologies and devices that help to further protect structures when they are subjected to actions such as earthquakes and winds. In order to face these challenges, mechanisms such as shock absorbers and controllers appear, grouped as passive, active, semi-active and hybrid devices, with innovative designs that greatly contribute to give greater safety and confidence to our civil works. This article presents a general overview of seismic dampers and controllers, their historical development, mechanical and analytical models, scopes, strengths and weaknesses.

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Publicado
2022-04-29
Cómo citar
Martinez-Martinez, G. D. J., Blandón-Valencia, J. J., & Lara-Valencia, L. A. (2022). Amortiguadores de masa sintonizada: una revisión general. Revista Politécnica, 18(35), 140-168. https://doi.org/10.33571/rpolitec.v18n35a10

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