Aireación en la tecnología Biofloc (BTF): principios básicos, aplicaciones y perspectivas

Alvaro Javier Piñeros-Roldan, Mariana Catalina Gutierrez-Espinosa, Marina Lapa-Viana, Mauricio Gustavo Coelho-Emerenciano

Resumen


En un mundo globalizado de creciente población ávido por nutrientes para su alimentación, la proteína de origen acuática emerge como la gran alternativa nutricional del siglo. La disminución de sus recursos para la explotación (agua, tierra y personal) implica que se deba intensificar la producción de peces y camarones y una posibilidad para dicho establecimiento es la tecnología de biofloc (BFT en su sigla en inglés). Sin embargo, esta intensificación debe ser dada con principios de eficiencia técnica y económica, por lo tanto, un correcto diseño de la aeración es de fundamental importancia para mantener las partículas en suspensión, oxigenar y mover correctamente el agua. Unido a los alimentos concentrados, el costo energético (incluyendo la aeración) son de los más importantes costos de producción utilizando la tecnología BFT. Utilizando recambios mínimos o nulos, el número, tipo y distribución de los aparatos mecánicos de aeración son cruciales para el mantenimiento de la calidad de agua para las especies cultivadas y para los microorganismos que se encuentran inmiscuidos en el sistema. En este contexto, esta revisión pretende brindar una base teórica para el estudio e implementación de los sistemas de aireación en los sistemas BFT, además de trazar perspectivas futuras para estos componentes.

In a globalized world with growing population avid for nutrients for their feeding, the aquatic originated protein emerges as the big nutritional alternative of the century. The reduction of their resources to the farming (water, field and human resource) implies that the fish and shrimp production has to be intensify and one of the possibilities for this development is Biofloc Technology (BFT). Nevertheless, this intensification has to be given with principles of economic and technical efficiency, therefore, a correct design of the aeration is a big principal to maintain the suspended particles, oxygenate and move the water correctly. The electricity (aeration included) join with the feed are the most important production costs using BFT. With water changes low or none of it, the number, type and distribution of the mechanical oxygenator devices are crucial to maintain the water quality for the cultivated species and for the microorganisms that are included on the system. In this context this revision pretends to present the basis for the study and implementation of the aeration systems on BFT, also drawing future perspectives for these components.


Palabras clave


Biofloc; densidades de siembra; cultivo intensivo; peces; camarones; acuacultura; biomasa

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33571/rpolitec.v16n31a3

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