Efectos de la vegetación en la estabilidad de laderas: una revisión

Roberto José Marín Sánchez, Juan Pablo Osorio


A la ocurrencia de movimientos en masa se le asocian tanto factores condicionantes, que reducen la resistencia del suelo, como factores desencadenantes, que incrementan ciertas fuerzas que generan inestabilidad en el terreno. Entre estos factores, la presencia de vegetación tiene un papel importante asociado principalmente a mecanismos hidrológicos, como evapotranspiración e infiltración de lluvia, y a mecanismos mecánicos, como el refuerzo que aportan las raíces de los árboles y el peso de los mismos. En esta revisión se identifica la influencia de la vegetación en la estabilidad de laderas, describiendo los mecanismos que intervienen en la ocurrencia de movimientos en masa, señalando la forma en que afectan o benefician la estabilidad según las propiedades del terreno, condiciones climáticas y características del medio ambiente.

Palabras clave

Vegetación; estabilidad de laderas; movimientos en masa; árboles; infiltración

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